All Community Experiments

Background removal procedure based on the SNIP algorithm for γ-ray spectroscopy with the CAEN Educational Kit

November 12th, 2021| |CAEN Experiments, Particle Detectors Characterization

In gamma spectra the energy, the intensity and the number of resolved photo peaks depend on the detector resolution and the background from physics processes. A widely used method for subtracting the background under a photopeak is provided by the Sensitive Nonlinear Iterative Peak (SNIP) algorithm. This paper reports a validation procedure of the SNIP algorithm, based on the invariance of the photo-peak area for different background levels.

A simple and robust method to study after-pulses in Silicon Photomultipliers

November 12th, 2021| |CAEN Experiments, Particle Detectors Characterization

The after-pulsing probability in Silicon Photomultipliers and its time constant are obtained measuring the mean number of photo-electrons in a variable time window following a light pulse. The method, experimentally simple and statistically robust due to the use of the Central Limit Theorem, has been applied to an HAMAMATSU MPPC S10362-11-100C.

An Educational Kit Based on Modular Silicon Photomultiplier System

November 12th, 2021| |CAEN Experiments, Particle Detectors Characterization

Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM) are state of the art light detectors with unprecedented single photon sensitivity and photon number resolving capability, representing a breakthrough in several fundamental and applied Science domains. An educational experiment based on a SiPM set-up is proposed in this article, guiding the student towards a comprehensive knowledge of this sensor technology while experiencing the quantum nature of light and exploring the statistical properties of the light pulses emitted by a LED

The EasyPET: a novel concept for an educational cost-effective positron emission 2D scanner

September 24th, 2021| |CAEN Experiments, Nuclear Imaging - PET, Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity, Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity

The EasyPET concept proposed here, protected under a patent by the University of Aveiro, aims to realize a simple and affordable small dimension Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner. This innovative system is based on a single pair of detectors and a rotating mechanism with two degrees of freedom reproducing the functionalities of an entire PET ring. A 2D imaging prototype has been designed, commissioned and engineered, targeted to high level education for physics, engineering and nuclear medicine students. In this paper the performance of the prototype is reported, with a focus on the imaging capability and on the measurement of the uncertainty in the reconstruction of the source position. In addition, a detailed analysis is dedicated to the slice sensitivity and in particular to the effect of the energy threshold on the coincidence event selection.

Silicon Photomultipliers and SPAD imagers in biophotonics: Advances and perspectives

September 24th, 2021| |Advanced Statistics, CAEN Experiments, Silicon Photomultipliers

Photonics is essential in life science research and the continuous development of methods offers researchers tools of unprecedented sensitivity. Sensors are key to the exploitation of the most advanced biophotonic techniques with highly demanding specifications in terms of single photon sensitivity, time resolution, miniaturisation real-time processing and data throughput. Silicon photomultipliers and Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) imagers represent the state-of-the-art in photon detection with single photon sensitivity, photon number resolving capability and the possibility to integrate on chip advanced functionalities. As a consequence, they can be the platform for the next generation biophotonic instruments and methods. This paper summarises the main biophotonic techniques and reports exemplary applications of Silicon Photomultipliers and SPAD imagers for fluorescence, chemiluminescence, time correlated single photon counting and imaging. Achievements and current limitations are addressed, pointing as well to the most recent technology advances and highlighting the possible pathways for the near future.

CAEN Educational: Nuclear and Particle Physics Experiments

September 24th, 2021| |CAEN Experiments, Cosmic Rays, Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity, Particle Physics, Photons

CAEN S.p.A., an important industrial spin-off of the INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics), is pleased to present its new activities in the educational field. CAEN brings the experience acquired in almost 40 years of collaboration with the High Energy & Nuclear Physics community into the university educational laboratories by providing modern physics experiments based on the latest technologies and instrumentation. CAEN has realized different modular Educational Kits, all based on Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) state of-the-art light sensors with single photon sensitivity and unprecedented photon number resolving capability. They have proven to be suitable for an increasing number of applications in science and industry. The main goal is to inspire students and guide them towards the analysis and comprehension of different physics phenomena with a series of experiments based on state-of-the art technologies, instruments and methods.

Characterisation of SiPMs

September 24th, 2021| |CAEN Experiments, Particle Detector Characterization, Particle Detectors Characterization, Silicon Photomultipliers

Silicon photomultipliers, thanks to their excellent performance, robustness and relatively simple use, are the photon-detectors of choice for many present and future applications. This paper gives an overview of methods to characterise SiPMs. The different SiPM parameters are introduced and generic setups for their determination presented. Finally, ways to extract the parameters from the measurements are discussed and the results shown. If a parameter can be obtained from different measurements, the results are compared and recommendations given, which is considered to be the most reliable. The characterisation of SiPMs, in particular for high light intensities and in high radiation fields, is presently a field of intensive research with many open questions and problems which will be discussed.

An EDUGATE simulation toolkit based on the educational EasyPET

September 24th, 2021| |CAEN Experiments, Nuclear Imaging - PET, Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity, Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity

EasyPET is a new concept of a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanner using an innovative acquisition method based on two rotation axes for the movement of detector pairs. Due to its simplicity, it is suitable for education purposes, to teach students about the PET technology and its basic concepts, from the radiation detecting and analogue pulse analysis to the coincidence sorting and image reconstruction. The concept allows achieving high and uniform position resolution over the whole eld of view (FoV), by eliminating parallax errors due to the depth of interaction (DoI), which are typical of ring-based PET systems, so quality images are obtained even without state-of-the-art image reconstruction algorithms. The technology developed at the University of Aveiro with a patent-pending, is licensed to CAEN S.p.A, and included in the educational catalogue of the company. In this work, a simulation toolkit based in the Edugate platform was developed to simulate the EasyPET system. It can simulate all the physical aspects of the product, such us the scanning range, variable Field-of-View (FOV), scintillator energy resolution, coincidence time and energy window, among others. A simple image reconstruction algorithm based on Filtered-back-projection (FBP) is implemented. The toolkit allows a quick analysis in classroom of the simulation results. The platform was also used to study the new EasyPET 3D version, and a simulation of a NEMA NU 4-2008 IQ phantom was performed, demonstrating the capability of the platform not only for education purposes but also for research.

A caccia di muoni

September 24th, 2021| |CAEN Experiments, Cosmic Rays, Particle Physics

In questa tesina ho scelto di parlare dei raggi cosmici e dell’esperimento di Rossi e Hall, che ha ispirato la realizzazione del piccolo esperimento presentato nella seconda parte. Parlerò infine delle applicazioni pratiche della misura del flusso di muoni cosmici